P.P. (Peter) Wakker

Full Professor
Erasmus School of Economics
Erasmus University Rotterdam
Member ERIM
Field: Marketing
Affiliated since 2008

Personal website.

Peter Wakker is a professor of decisions under uncertainty at the Department of Econometrics of the Erasmus School of Economics (ESE). He works in behavioral economics, primarily on the differences between normative and descriptive decisions, and on decisions under risk and uncertainty.

Wakker has published in leading journals in economics, business, medicine, psychology, statistics, and mathematics. He was nominated the best-publishing Dutch economist in the years 1994, 1998, 2003, and 2007, and was ranked 90th in the world in the ISI's most cited scientists in economics and business in 2003. He received a Medical Decision Making Career Achievement Award in 2007.

Wakker regularly gives advices on insurance in the media.

Wakker is director, jointly with Professor Han Bleichrodt, of the research group Behavioral Economics.

  • Dimmock, S.G., Kouwenberg, R.R.P. & Wakker, P.P. (2015). Ambiguity Attitudes in a Large Representative Sample. Management Science, in press.
  • Sales, C., Wakker, P.P., Alves, P.C.G. & Faísca, L. (2015). MF Calculator: A Web-based Application for Analyzing Similarity. Journal of Statistical Software, in press.
  • Bleichrodt, H. & Wakker, P.P. (2015). Regret Theory: A Bold Alternative to the Alternatives. The Economic Journal, in press.
  • Palma, A. de, Abdellaoui, M., Attanasi, G., Ben-Akiva, M., Erev, I., Fehr-Duda, H., Fok, D., Fox, C., Hertwig, R., Picard, N., Wakker, P.P., Walker, J. & Weber, M. (2014). Beware of Black Swans: Taking stock of the description - experience gap in decision under uncertainty. Marketing Letters, 25 (3), 269-280. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11002-014-9316-z[go to publisher's site]
  • Kothiyal, Amit, Spinu, Vitalie & Wakker, P.P. (2014). Average Utility Maximization: A Preference Foundation. Operations Research, 62 (1), 207-218. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/opre.2013.1230[go to publisher's site]
  • Wakker, P.P., Li, C. & Li, Z. (2014). If Nudge Cannot Be Applied: A Litmus Test of the Readers’ Stance on Paternalism. Theory and Decision, 76, 297-315. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11238-013-9375-2[go to publisher's site]
  • Kothiyal, A., Spinu, V. & Wakker, P.P. (2014). An Experimental Test of Prospect Theory for Predicting Choice under Ambiguity. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 48 (1), 1-17. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11166-014-9185-0[go to publisher's site]
  • Bleichrodt, H., Kothiyal, A., Prelec, D. & Wakker, P.P. (2013). Compound Invariance Implies Prospect Theory for Simple Prospects. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 57 (3-4), 68-77. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmp.2013.04.002[go to publisher's site]
  • Spinu, V. & Wakker, P.P. (2013). Expected Utility without Continuity: A Comment on Delbaen, Drapeau, and Kupper (2011). Journal of Mathematical Economics, 49 (1), 28-30. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmateco.2012.09.005[go to publisher's site]
  • Bleichrodt, H., Potter van Loon, R.J.D., Rohde, K.I.M. & Wakker, P.P. (2013). A Criticism of Doyle's Survey of Time Preference: A Correction Regarding the CRDI and CADI Families. Judgment and decision making, 8 (5), 630-631.
  • Baillon, A., Driesen, B. & Wakker, P.P. (2012). Relative Concave Utility for Risk and Ambiguity. Games and Economic Behavior, 75 (2), 481-489. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geb.2012.01.006
  • Attema, A.E., Bleichrodt, H. & Wakker, P.P. (2012). A Direct Method for Measuring Discounting and QALYs more Easily and Reliably. Medical Decision Making, 32 (4), 583-593. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0272989X12451654[go to publisher's site]
  • Baltussen, G., Post, G.T., Assem, M.J. van den & Wakker, P.P. (2012). Random Incentive Systems in a Dynamic Choice Experiment. Experimental Economics, 15 (3), 418-443. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10683-011-9306-4[go to publisher's site]
  • Baillon, A., Cabantous, L. & Wakker, P.P. (2012). Aggregating Imprecise or Conflicting Beliefs: An Experimental Investigation Using Modern Ambiguity Theories. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 44 (2), 115-147. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11166-012-9140-x[go to publisher's site]
  • Abdellaoui, M., Baillon, A., Placido, L. & Wakker, P.P. (2011). The Rich Domain of Uncertainty: Source Functions and Their Experimental Implementation. The American Economic Review, 101 (2), 695-723. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/aer.101.2.695[go to publisher's site]
  • Wakker, P.P. (2011). Jaffray's Ideas on Ambiguity. Theory and Decision, 71 (1), 11-22. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11238-010-9209-4[go to publisher's site]
  • van de Kuilen, G. & Wakker, P.P. (2011). The Midweight Method to Measure Attitudes towards Risk and Ambiguity. Management Science, 57 (3), 582-598. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.1100.1282[go to publisher's site]
  • Bleichrodt, H., Doctor, J.N., Filko, M. & Wakker, P.P. (2011). Utility Independence of Multiattribute Utility Theory is Equivalent to Standard Sequence Invariance of Conjoint Measurement. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 55 (6), 451-456. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmp.2011.08.001[go to publisher's site]
  • Kothiyal, A., Spinu, V. & Wakker, P.P. (2011). Prospect Theory for Continuous Distributions: A Preference Foundation. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 42, 195-210. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11166-011-9118-0
  • Trautmann, S.T., Vieider, F.M. & Wakker, P.P. (2011). Preference Reversals for Ambiguity Aversion. Management Science, 57 (7), 1320-1333. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.1110.1343[go to publisher's site]
  • Kothiyal, A., Spinu, V. & Wakker, P.P. (2011). Comonotonic Proper Scoring Rules to Measure Ambiguity and Subjective Beliefs. Journal of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis, 17 (3/4), 101-113. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mcda.454
  • Trautmann, S.T. & Wakker, P.P. (2010). Process Fairness and Dynamic Consistency. Economics Letters, 109 (3), 187-189. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.econlet.2010.08.031[go to publisher's site]
  • Attema, A.E., Bleichrodt, H., Rohde, K.I.M. & Wakker, P.P. (2010). Time-Tradeoff Sequences for Analyzing Discounting and Time Inconsistency. Management Science, 56 (11), 2015-2030. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.1100.1219
  • Bleichrodt, H., Rohde, K.I.M. & Wakker, P.P. (2009). Non-Hyperbolic Time Inconsistency. Games and Economic Behavior, 66 (1), 27-38. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geb.2008.05.007[go to publisher's site]
  • Sales, C. & Wakker, P.P. (2009). The Metric-Frequency Measure of Similarity for Ill-Structured Data Sets, with an Application to Family Therapy. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 62 (3), 663-682. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/000711008X376070
  • Offerman, T., Sonnemans, J., van de Kuilen, G. & Wakker, P.P. (2009). A Truth-Serum for Non-Bayesians: Correcting Proper Scoring Rules for Risk Attitudes. Review of Economic Studies, 76 (4), 1461-1489. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-937X.2009.00557.x[go to publisher's site]
  • Wakker, P.P. (2008). Explaining the Characteristics of the Power (CRRA) Utility Family. Health Economics, 17 (12), 1329-1344. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hec.1331
  • Wakker, P.P. (2008). Lessons Learned by (from?) an Economists Working in Medical Decision Making. Medical Decision Making, 28, 690-698. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0272989X08323916
  • Bleichrodt, H., Rohde, K.I.M. & Wakker, P.P. (2008). Combining additive representations on subsets into an overall representation. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 52 (5), 304-310. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmp.2008.04.005
  • Palma, A. de, Ben-Akiva, M., Brownstone, D., Holt, C, Thierry, M., McFadden, D., Moffatt, P., Picard, N., Train, K., Wakker, P.P. & Walker, J. (2008). Risk, Uncertainty and Discrete Choice Models. Marketing Letters, 19 (3/4), 269-285. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11002-008-9047-0[go to publisher's site]
  • Bleichrodt, H., Rohde, K.I.M. & Wakker, P.P. (2008). Koopmans' Constant Discounting for Intertemporal Choice: A Simplification and a Generalization. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 52 (6), 341-347. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmp.2008.05.003
  • Trautmann, S.T., Vieider, F.M. & Wakker, P.P. (2008). Causes of Ambiguity Aversion: Known versus Unknown Preferences. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 36 (3), 225-243. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11166-008-9038-9[go to publisher's site]
  • Wakker, P.P., Timmermans, D.R.M. & Machielse, I.A. (2007). The Effects of Statistical Information on Risk and Ambiguity Attitudes, and on Rational Decisions. Management Science, 53 (11), 1770-1784. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.1070.0735[go to publisher's site]
  • Diecidue, E., Wakker, P.P. & Zeelenberg, M. (2007). Eliciting Decision Weights by Adapting de Finetti's Betting-Odds Methods to Prospect Theory. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 34, 179-199. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11166-007-9011-z
  • Abdellaoui, M., Barrios, C. & Wakker, P.P. (2007). Reconciling Introspective Utility with Revealed Preference: Experimental Arguments Based on Prospect Theory. Journal of Econometrics, 138 (1), 336-378. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jeconom.2006.05.025
  • Kobberling, V., Schwieren, C & Wakker, P.P. (2007). Prospect-Theory's Diminishing Sensitivity versus Economics' Intrinsic Utility of Money: How the Introduction of the of the Euro Can Be Used to Disentagle the Two Empirically. Theory and Decision, 63 (3), 205-231.
  • Kuilen, G.E. van de & Wakker, P.P. (2006). Learning in the Allais Paradox. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 33, 155-164. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11166-006-0390-3
  • Wakker, P.P. (2005). Decision-Foundations for Properties of Nonadditive Measures for General State Spaces or for General Outcome Spaces. Games and Economic Behavior, 50, 107-125.
  • Kobberling, V. & Wakker, P.P. (2005). An Index of Loss Aversion. Journal of Economic Theory, 122, 119-131.
  • Abdellaoui, M. & Wakker, P.P. (2005). The Likelihood Method for Decision under Uncertainty. Theory and Decision, 58, 3-76.
  • Diecidue, E., Schmidt, U. & Wakker, P.P. (2004). The Utility of Gambling Reconsidered. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 29, 241-259.
  • Kobberling, V. & Wakker, P.P. (2004). A Simple Tool for Qualitatively Testing, Quantitatively Measuring, and Normatively Justifying Savage's Subjective Expected Utility. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 28, 135-145.
  • van Osch, S.M.C., Wakker, P.P., van den Hout, W. & Stiggelbout, AM (2004). Correcting Biases in Standard Gamble and Time Tradeoff Utilities. Medical Decision Making, 24, 511-517.
  • Wakker, P.P. (2004). On the Composition of Risk Preference and Belief. Psychological Review, 111, 236-241. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.111.1.236
  • Wakker, P.P., Jansen, S.J.T. & Stiggelbout, AM (2004). Anchor Levels as a New Tool for the Theory and Measurement of Multiattribute Utility. Decision Analysis, 1, 217-234.
  • Wakker, P.P. (2003). The Data of Levy and Levy (2002) "Prospect Theory: Much Ado about Nothing?" Actually Support Prospect Theory. Management Science, 49, 979-981.
  • Kobberling, V. & Wakker, P.P. (2003). Preference Foundations for Nonexpected Utility: A Generalized and Simplified Technique. Mathematics of Operations Research, 28, 395-423.
  • Wakker, P.P. (2002). Decision-Principles to Justify Carnap's Updating Method and to Suggest Corrections of Probability Judgments. In A Darwiche & N Friedman (Eds.), Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence, Proceedings of the Eighteenth Conference (pp. 544-551). San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann.
  • Diecidue, E. & Wakker, P.P. (2002). Dutch Books: Avoiding Strategic and Dynamic Complications, and a Comonotonic Extension. Mathematical Social Sciences, 43, 135-149.
  • Gilboa, I., Schmeidler, D. & Wakker, P.P. (2002). Utility in Case-Based Decision Theory. Journal of Economic Theory, 105, 483-502.
  • Wakker, P.P. & Zank, H. (2002). A Simple Preference-Foundation of Cumulative Prospect Theory with Power Utility. European Economic Review, 46, 1253-1271.
  • Wakker, P.P. (2001). Testing and Characterizing Properties of Nonadditive Measures through Violations of the Sure-Thing Principle. Econometrica, 69, 1039-1059.
  • Bleichrodt, H., Pinto, J.L. & Wakker, P.P. (2001). Making Descriptive Use of Prospect Theory to Improve the Prescriptive Use of Expected Utility. Management Science, 47 (11), 1498-1514.
  • Diecidue, E. & Wakker, P.P. (2001). On the Intuition of Rank-Dependent Utility. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 23, 281-298.
  • Post, P.N., Siggelbout, A.M. & Wakker, P.P. (2001). The Utility of Health States Following Stroke; a Systematic Review of the Literature. Stroke, 32, 1425-1429.
  • De Waegenaere, A. & Wakker, P.P. (2001). Nonmonotonic Choquet Integrals. Journal of Mathematical Economics, 36, 45-60.
  • Jansen, S.J.T., Stiggelbout, AM, Wakker, P.P., Nooij, A.N., Noordijk, E.M. & Kievit, J. (2000). Unstable Preferences: A Shift in Valuation or an Effect of the Elicitation Procedure? Medical Decision Making, 20, 62-71.
  • Wakker, P.P. (2000). Dempster Belief Functions Are Based on the Principle of Complete Ignorance. International Journal of Uncertainty Fuzziness and Knowledge-Based Systems, 8, 271-284.
  • Sarin, R.K. & Wakker, P.P. (2000). Cumulative Dominance and Probabilistic Sophistication. Mathematical Social Sciences, 40, 191-196.
  • Wakker, P.P. (2000). Uncertainty Aversion: A Discussion of Critical Issues in Health Economics. Health Economics, 9, 261-263.
  • Wakker, P.P. & Zank, H. (1999). State Dependent Expected Utility for Savage's State Space. Mathematics of Operations Research, 24, 8-34.
  • Wakker, P.P. & Zank, H. (1999). A Unified Derivation of Classical Subjective Expected Utility Models through Cardinal Utility. Journal of Mathematical Economics, 32, 1-19.
  • Chateauneuf, A. & Wakker, P.P. (1999). An Axiomatization of Cumulative Prospect Theory for Decision under Risk. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 18, 137-145.
  • Sarin, R.K. & Wakker, P.P. (1998). Revealed Likelihood and Knightian Uncertainty. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 16, 223-250. doi: http://dx.doi.org/1007703002999
  • Miyamoto, J.M., Wakker, P.P., Bleichrodt, H. & Peters, H.J.M. (1998). The Zero-Condition: A Simplifying Assumption in QALY Measurement and Multiattribute Utility. Management Science, 44, 839-849.
  • Sarin, R.K. & Wakker, P.P. (1998). Dynamic Choice and Nonexpected Utility. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 17, 87-119.
  • Jansen, S.J.T., Siggelbout, A.M., Wakker, P.P., Vliet Vlieland, T.P.M., Leer, J.W.H., Nooy, M.A. & Kievit, J. (1998). Patient Utilities for Cancer Treatments: A Study of the Chained Procedure for the Standard Gamble and Time TradeOff. Medical Decision Making, 18, 391-399. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0272989X9801800406
  • Bleichrodt, H., Wakker, P.P. & Johannesson, M. (1997). Characterizing QALYs by Risk Neutrality. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 15 (15), 107-114.
  • Kahneman, D., Wakker, P.P. & Sarin, R.K. (1997). Back to Bentham? Explorations of Experienced Utility. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 112, 375-405. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/003355397555235
  • Wakker, P.P., Thaler, R.H. & Tversky, A. (1997). Probabilistic Insurance. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 15, 7-28. doi: http://dx.doi.org/1007799303256
  • Stalmeier, PFM, Wakker, P.P. & Bezembinder, Th.G.G. (1997). Preference Reversals: Violations of Unidimensional Procedure Invariance. Journal of Experimental Psychology-Human Perception and Performance, 23, 1196-1205.
  • Fennema, H. & Wakker, P.P. (1997). Original and Cumulative Prospect Theory: A Discussion of Empirical Differences. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 10, 53-64.
  • Sarin, R.K. & Wakker, P.P. (1997). A Single-Stage Approach to Anscombe and Aumann's Expected Utility. Review of Economic Studies, 64, 399-409.
  • Wakker, P.P. (1996). A Criticism of Healthy-Years Equivalents. Medical Decision Making, 16, 207-214.
  • Wakker, P.P. (1996). The Sure-Thing Principle and the Comonotonic Sure-Thing Principle: An Axiomatic Analysis. Journal of Mathematical Economics, 25, 213-227. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0304-4068(95)00721-0
  • Wakker, P.P. & Deneffe, D. (1996). Eliciting von Neumann-Morgenstern Utilities when Probabilities Are Distorted or Unknown. Management Science, 42, 1131-1150.
  • Chew, S.H. & Wakker, P.P. (1996). The Comonotonic Sure-Thing Principle. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 12, 5-27. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00353328
  • Deneffe, D. & Wakker, P.P. (1996). Mergers, Strategic Investments and Antitrust Policy. Managerial and Decision Economics, 17, 231-240.
  • Fennema, H. & Wakker, P.P. (1996). A Test of Rank-Dependent Utility in the Context of Ambiguity. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 13, 19-35.
  • Peters, H.J.M. & Wakker, P.P. (1996). Cycle-Preserving Extension of Demand Functions to New Commodities. Journal of Mathematical Economics, 25, 281-290. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0304-4068(95)00733-4
  • Miyamoto, J. & Wakker, P.P. (1996). Multiattribute Utility Theory without Expected Utility Foundations. Operations Research, 44, 313-326.
  • Timmermans, D.R.M., Politser, P. & Wakker, P.P. (1995). Aggregation, Rationality, and Risk Communication: Three Current Debates in Medical Decision Making. In J.P. Caverni, M. Bar-Hillel, F. Hutton Barron & H. Jungermann (Eds.), Contributions to Decision Making -I (pp. 111-117). Amsterdam: Elseviers Science.
  • Tversky, A. & Wakker, P.P. (1995). Risk Attitudes and Decision Weights. Econometrica, 63, 1255-1280.
  • Wakker, P.P. & Klaassen, M.P. (1995). Confidence Intervals for Cost/Effectiveness Ratios. Health Economics, 4, 373-381.
  • Wakker, P.P. & Stiggelbout, AM (1995). Explaining Distortions in Utility Elicitation through the Rank-Dependent Model for Risky Choices. Medical Decision Making, 15, 180-186.
  • Maas, A.I.R., Bezembinder, Th.G.G. & Wakker, P.P. (1995). On Solving Intransitivities in Repeated Pairwise Choices. Mathematical Social Sciences, 29, 83-101. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0165-4896(94)00769-5
  • Fishburn, P.C., & Wakker, P.P. (1995). The Invention of the Independence Condition for Preferences. Management Science, 41, 1130-1144.
  • Sarin, R.K. & Wakker, P.P. (1994). Folding Back in Decision Tree Analysis. Management Science, 40, 625-628.
  • Wakker, P.P., Erev, I. & Weber, E.U. (1994). Comonotonic Independence: The Critical Test between Classical and Rank-Dependent Utility Theories. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 9, 195-230.
  • Wakker, P.P. (1994). Separating Marginal Utility and Probabilistic Risk Aversion. Theory and Decision, 36, 1-44. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01075296
  • Fennema, H. & Wakker, P.P. (1994). An Explanation and Characterization for the Buying of Lotteries. In S. Rios (Ed.), Decision Theory and Decision Analysis: Trends and Challenges (pp. 163-175). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  • Sarin, R.K. & Wakker, P.P. (1994). A General Result for Quantifying Beliefs. Econometrica, 62, 683-685.
  • Maas, A.I.R. & Wakker, P.P. (1994). Additive Conjoint Measurement for Multiattribute Utility. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 38, 86-101.
  • Quiggin, J. & Wakker, P.P. (1994). The Axiomatic Basis of Anticipated Utility; A Clarification. Journal of Economic Theory, 64, 486-499.
  • Sarin, R.K. & Wakker, P.P. (1994). Gains and Losses in Nonadditive Expected Utility. In M.J. Machina & B.R. Munier (Eds.), Models and Experiments on Risk and Rationality (pp. 157-172). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  • Peters, H.J.M. & Wakker, P.P. (1994). WARP Does not Imply SARP for More Than Two Commodities. Journal of Economic Theory, 62, 152-160.
  • Wakker, P.P. (1993). Clarification of some Mathematical Misunderstandings about Savage's Foundations of Statistics, 1954. Mathematical Social Sciences, 25, 199-202.
  • Chew, S.H., Epstein, L.G. & Wakker, P.P. (1993). A Unifying Approach to Axiomatic Non-Expected Utility Theories: Correction and Comment. Journal of Economic Theory, 59, 183-188.
  • Wakker, P.P. (1993). Counterexamples to Segal's Measure Representation Theorem. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 6, 91-98.
  • Wakker, P.P. (1993). Additive Representations on Rank-Ordered Sets II. The Topological Approach. Journal of Mathematical Economics, 22, 1-26.
  • Wakker, P.P. (1993). Unbounded Utility for Savage's Foundations of Statistics, and other Models. Mathematics of Operations Research, 18, 446-485.
  • Jaffray, J.Y. & Wakker, P.P. (1993). Decision Making with Belief Functions: Compatibility and Incompatibility with the Sure-Thing Principle. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 7, 255-271.
  • Chateauneuf, A. & Wakker, P.P. (1993). From Local to Global Additive Representation. Journal of Mathematical Economics, 22, 523-545. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0304-4068(93)90002-3
  • Wakker, P.P. & Tversky, A. (1993). An Axiomatization of Cumulative Prospect Theory. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 7, 147-176.
  • Wakker, P.P. (1993). Savage's Axioms Usually Imply Violation of Strict Stochastic Dominance. Review of Economic Studies, 60, 487-493.
  • Wakker, P.P. (1992). Characterizing Stochastically Monotone Functions by Multi-Attribute Utility Theory. Economic Theory, 2, 565-566. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01212477
  • Sarin, R.K. & Wakker, P.P. (1992). A Simple Axiomatization of Nonadditive Expected Utility. Econometrica, 60, 1255-1272.
  • Wakker, P.P. (1991). Additive Representation for Equally Spaced Structures. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 260-266. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-2496(91)90028-R
  • Wakker, P.P. (1991). Additive Representations of Preferences, A New Foundation of Decision Analysis; The Algebraic Approach. In J.P. Doignon & J.C. Falmagne (Eds.), Mathematical Psychology: Current Developments (pp. 71-87). Berlin: Springer.
  • Wakker, P.P. (1991). Continuity of Transformations. Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications, 162, 1-6.
  • Wakker, P.P. (1991). Additive Representations on Rank-Ordered Sets. I. The Algebraic Approach. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 35, 501-531. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-2496(91)90045-U
  • Peters, H.J.M. & Wakker, P.P. (1991). Independence of Irrelevant Alternatives and Revealed Group Preferences. Econometrica, 59, 1787-1801.
  • Wakker, P.P. (1990). Characterizing Optimism and Pessimism Directly hrough Comonotonicity. Journal of Economic Theory, 52, 453-463. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-0531(90)90043-J
  • Wakker, P.P. (1990). A Behavioral Foundation for Fuzzy Measures. Fuzzy Sets & Systems, 37, 327-350. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0165-0114(90)90030-A
  • Wakker, P.P. (1990). Under Stochastic Dominance Choquet-Expected Utility and Anticipated Utility are Identical. Theory and Decision, 29, 119-132. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00126589
  • Wakker, P.P. (1989). Continuous Subjective Expected Utility with Nonadditive Probabilities. Journal of Mathematical Economics, 18, 1-27. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0304-4068(89)90002-5
  • Wakker, P.P. (1989). A Graph-Theoretic Approach to Revealed Preference. Methodology and Science, 22, 53-66.
  • Wakker, P.P. (1989). Subjective Expected Utility with Non-Increasing Risk Aversion. Annals of Operations Research, 19, 219-228. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02283522
  • Wakker, P.P. (1989). Transforming Probabilities without Violating Stochastic Dominance. In E.E.Ch.I. Roskam (Ed.), Mathematical Psychology in Progress (pp. 29-47). Berlin: Springer.
  • Wakker, P.P. (1989). Nonexpected Utility as Aversion of Information: A Discussion. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 2, 197-202. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bdm.3960020306
  • Wakker, P.P. (1988). Continuity of Preference Relations for Separable Topologies. International Economic Review, 29, 105-110.
  • Wakker, P.P. (1988). The Algebraic versus the Topological Approach to Additive Representations. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 32, 421-435. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-2496(88)90021-1
  • Wakker, P.P. (1988). Derived Strength of Preference Relations on Coordinates. Economics Letters, 28, 301-306. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0165-1765(88)90002-X
  • Wakker, P.P. (1988). Characterizations of Quasilinear Representing Functions, and Specified Forms of These. In W. Eichhorn (Ed.), Measurement in Economics (Theory and Applications of Economic Indices (pp. 311-326). Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag.
  • Wakker, P.P. (1988). Nonexpected Utility as Aversion of Information. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 1, 169-175.
  • Wakker, P.P. (1987). Subjective Probabilities for State-Dependent Continuous Utility. Mathematical Social Sciences, 14, 289-298. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0165-4896(87)90007-2
  • Peters, H.J.M. & Wakker, P.P. (1987). Convex Functions on Non-Convex Domains. Economics Letters, 22, 251-255. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0165-1765(86)90242-9
  • Wakker, P.P. (1986). Concave Additively Decomposable Representing Functions and Risk Aversion. In L. Daboni, A. Montesano & M. Lines (Eds.), Recent Developments in the Foundations of Utility and Risk Theory (pp. 249-262). Dordrecht: Reidel.
  • Wakker, P.P. (1986). The Repetitions Approach to Characterize Cardinal Utility. Theory and Decision, 20, 33-40.
  • Wakker, P.P., Peters, H.J.M. & van Riel, T.B.P.L. (1986). Comparisons of Risk Aversion, with an Application to Bargaining. Methods of Operations Research, 54, 307-320.
  • Wakker, P.P. (1985). Extending Monotone and Non-Expansive Mappings by Optimization. Cahiers du C.E.R.O., 27, 141-149.
  • Wakker, P.P. (1985). Continuous Expected Utility for Arbitrary State Spaces. Methods of Operations Research, 50, 113-129.
  • Wakker, P.P. (1984). Cardinal Coordinate Independence for Expected Utility. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 28, 110-117. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-2496(84)90021-X
  • de Koster, R., Peters, H.J.M., Tijs, S.H. & Wakker, P.P. (1983). Risk Sensitivity, Independence of Irrelevant Alternatives and Continuity of Bargaining Solutions. Mathematical Social Sciences, 4, 295-300.
  • Wakker, P.P. (1981). Agreeing Probability Measures for Comparative Probability Structures. Annals of Statistics, 9, 658-662.
  • Wakker, P.P. (2010). Prospect Theory: For Risk and Ambiguity. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
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  • Peters, H.J.M. & Wakker, P.P. (2010). Independence of Irrelevant Alternatives and Revealed Group Preferences (Extended abstract). In T. Ichiishi & A. Neyman (Eds.), Game Theory and Applications (pp. 404-406). New York: Academic Press.
  • Wakker, P.P. (2008). Uncertainty. In L. Blume & S.N. Durlauf (Eds.), The New Palgrave: A Dictionary of Economics (8) (pp. 428-439). Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan.
  • Wakker, P.P. (2004). Preference Axiomatizations for Decision under Uncertainty. In I. Gilboa (Ed.), Uncertainty in Economic Theory: Essays in Honor of David Schmeidler's 65 birthday (pp. 20-35). London: Routledge.
  • Wakker, P.P. (1987). From Decision Making under Uncertainty to Game Theory. In H.J.M. Peters & K.J. Vrieze (Eds.), Surveys of Game Theory and Related Topics (pp. 163-180). Amsterdam: Centre for Mathematics and Computer Science.
  • Schmeidler, D. & Wakker, P.P. (1987). Expected Utility and Mathematical Expectation. In J. Eatwell, M. Murray & P. Newman (Eds.), The New Palgrave: A Dictionary of Economics (pp. 229-232). London: The MacMillan Press.
Ning Liu

A Behavioral Approach to Group Decision Making under Ambiguity

  • Role: Promotor
  • PhD Candidate: Ning Liu
  • Time frame: 2011 -
Zhihua Li

Irrationality: What, Why and How

  • Role: Promotor
  • PhD Candidate: Zhihua Li
  • Time frame: 2010 - 2014

Editorial positions

  • Journal of Risk and Uncertainty


  • Management Science


  • Theory and Decision

    Associate Editor

  • Journal of Mathematical Psychology


Past courses


Visiting address

Office: Tinbergen Building H11-21
Burgemeester Oudlaan 50
3062 PA Rotterdam

Postal address

Postbus 1738
3000 DR Rotterdam

Work in progress

Dimmock, S.G., Kouwenberg, R.R.P. & Wakker, P.P. (2015). Ambiguity Attitudes in a Large Representative Sample. Management Science, in press.

Latest publication

Dimmock, S.G., Kouwenberg, R.R.P. & Wakker, P.P. (2015). Ambiguity Attitudes in a Large Representative Sample. Management Science, in press.