NCA-guided QCA: A Methodology for Developing Stronger Causal Statements of Necessity and Sufficiency
Scholars frequently understand causation in terms of necessity and sufficiency. However, the ontological relationship between necessary and sufficient conditions has not been fully explored. We argue that sufficiency can only be correctly understood by taking necessity into context and develop a corresponding methodology. NCA-guided QCA integrates Necessary Condition Analysis (Dul 2016, 2020) and Qualitative Comparative Analysis (Ragin 1987, 2008), by using the results of the former to properly contextualize the latter's sufficiency analysis to those observations where the outcome is possible. This methodology resolves outstanding questions regarding the relationship between necessary and sufficient conditions, allowing researchers to make stronger causal claims.
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