Franchising and Entrepreneurship; match or mismatch?



Traditional franchise literature argues that franchising and entrepreneurship do not match; standardization of the business format is the raison d'ĂȘtre of franchising as a phenomenon. More recently, arguments arise that entrepreneurship and franchise do match, since local adaptation of the business format would improve the business performance of the franchised unit. However, little is known about actual entrepreneurial behavior of franchisees. Since franchisees exhibit characteristics of both independent and corporate entrepreneurs, we combine various literature streams to develop and test hypotheses on the antecedents and consequences of entrepreneurial franchisee behavior. The results show that franchisees engage in considerable entrepreneurial behavior. The extent of entrepreneurial franchisee behavior is mainly related to franchisees’ intrinsic motivations, relational satisfaction and local competition. Entrepreneurial franchisee behavior has only a slight positive impact on unit performance, but leads to considerable variation in unit performance. This variation may be an important source for longer term business format renewal.

The Erasmus - EIM - Panteia Entrepreneurship Lectures Series is co-organized by Erasmus Research Institute of Management ( and EIM Business & Policy Research (EIM/Panteia), an independent and international research and consultancy organisation, specialised in SMEs and Entrepreneurship. EIM is part of the Panteia group.
For more research resources visit our joint Entrepreneurship Research Portal
Contact information:
Jolanda Hessels