Dr. C.A. (Niels) Rietveld

Erasmus School of Economics (ESE)
Erasmus University Rotterdam
Member ERIM
Field: Strategy & Entrepreneurship
Affiliated since 2010

Cornelius A. (Niels) Rietveld is associate professor at the department of Applied Economics, Erasmus School of Economics, Erasmus University Rotterdam and executive director of the Erasmus University Rotterdam Institute for Behavior and Biology. He is teaching the bachelor courses Economics & Genetics (FEB13089), Small Business Economics (FEB13035), and the master seminar Strategic Behavior (FEM11082). His primary fields of research are "Economics and human biology" and "The economics of entrepreneurship".


He is inspired for this research agenda by Adam Smith (1723-1790), the founding father of modern economics, who attributed the division of labour among people to a supposedly innate human ‘propensity to truck, barter, and exchange’. There are two main themes in his research. The first theme is the identification of biological predispositions to indicators of socio-economic status. He is primarily analysing genes, but also worked with hormonal measures such as testosterone and physical properties such as height. The second theme is the investigation of how socio-economic conditions affect biological dispositions. In this research area, He focusses on entrepreneurship (self-employment) as labour market choice and its effects on health and well-being.


  • Academic (50)
    • Rietveld, C. A., & Hoogendoorn, B. (2021). The mediating role of values in the relationship between religion and entrepreneurship. Small Business Economics. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11187-021-00454-z

    • Patel, PC., & Rietveld, N. (2021). The impact of the public disclosure of curved inspection scores using emojis on hygiene violations in food establishments. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 62(4), 455-467. https://doi.org/10.1177/1938965520935398

    • Patel, PC., Rietveld, N., Wolfe, M., & Wiklund, J. (2020). The polygenic risk score of subjective well-being, self-employment, and earnings among older individuals. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 45(2). https://doi.org/10.1177/1042258720936984

    • Rietveld, N., Slob, E., & Thurik, R. (2020). A decade of research on the genetics of entrepreneurship: a review and view ahead. Small Business Economics. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11187-020-00349-5

    • Rietveld, N., & Patel, PC. (2020). Prescription opioids and new business establishments. Small Business Economics. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11187-020-00343-x

    • Hessels, J., Rietveld, N., Thurik, R., & Van der Zwan, P. (2020). The higher returns to formal education for entrepreneurs versus employees in Australia. Journal of Business Venturing Insights, 13, [e00148]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbvi.2019.e00148

    • Meddens, SFW., De Vlaming, R., Bowers, P., Burik, CAP., Linner, RK., Lee, C., Okbay, A., Turley, P., Rietveld, N., Fontana, MA., Benjamin, DJ., Chow, CC., & Koellinger, PD. (2020). Genomic analysis of diet composition finds novel loci and associations with health and lifestyle. Molecular Psychiatry. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41380-020-0697-5

    • Hessels, J., Rietveld, N., & Van der Zwan, P. (2020). The relation between health and earnings in self-employment. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 801. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00801

    • Patel, PC., & Rietveld, N. (2020). The impact of financial insecurity on the self-employed’s short-term psychological distress: Evidence from the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Business Venturing Insights, 14, [e00206]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbvi.2020.e00206

    • Van Loon, L., Hessels, J., Rietveld, N., & Van der Zwan, P. (2020). Separation from the life partner and exit from self-employment. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 1118. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01118

    • Patel, PC., Rietveld, N., & Verheul, I. (2019). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and earnings in later-life self-employment. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice. https://doi.org/10.1177/1042258719888641

    • Clark, DW., Okada, Y., Moore, KHS., Mason, D., Pirastu, N., Gandin, I., Medina Gomez, M., Felix, J., Jaddoe, V., Rietveld, N., Kubo, M., & Wilson, JF. (2019). Associations of autozygosity with a broad range of human phenotypes. Nature Communications, 10, [4957]. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-12283-6

    • Van der Kooi, C., & Rietveld, N. (2019). God and His Works from an Entrepreneurship Perspective. Journal of Reformed Theology, 13(1), 47-64. https://doi.org/10.1163/15697312-01301001

    • Rietveld, N., & Patel, PC. (2019). ADHD and later-life labor market outcomes in the United States. The European Journal Of Health Economics, 20(7), 949-967. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10198-019-01055-0

    • Patel, PC., & Rietveld, N. (2019). Effect of the genetic propensity for obesity on income and wealth through educational attainment. Obesity, 27(9), 1423-1427. https://doi.org/10.1002/oby.22528

    • Linnér, RK., Biroli, P., Kong, E., Meddens, SFW., Wedow, R., Fontana, MA., Lebreton, M., Okbay, A., Rietveld, N., van Rooij, FJA., Ikram, A., Tiemeier, H., Hofman, B., Uitterlinden, A., Cesarini, D., Koellinger, PD., & Beauchamp, JP. (2019). Genome-wide association analyses of risk tolerance and risky behaviors in over one million individuals identify hundreds of loci and shared genetic influences. Nature Genetics, 51(2), 245-257. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41588-018-0309-3

    • Hessels, J., Rietveld, N., Thurik, R., & Zwan, P. (2018). Depression and entrepreneurial exit. The Academy of Management Perspectives, 32(3), 323-339. https://doi.org/10.5465/amp.2016.0183

    • Kippersluis, H., & Rietveld, N. (2018). Beyond Plausibly Exogenous. Econometrics Journal, 21(3), 316-331. https://doi.org/10.1111/ectj.12113

    • Kippersluis, H., & Rietveld, N. (2018). Pleiotropy-robust Mendelian Randomization. International Journal of Epidemiology, 47(4), 1279-1288. https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyx002/3039345

    • Zwan, P., Hessels, J., & Rietveld, N. (2018). Self-employment and satisfaction with life, work, and leisure. Journal of Economic Psychology, 64, 73-88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joep.2017.12.001

    • Bansal, V., Mitjans, M., Burik, CAP., Linnér, RK., Okbay, A., Rietveld, N., Begemann, M., Bonn, S., Ripke, S., De Vlaming, R., Nivard, MG., Ehrenreich, H., & Koellinger, PD. (2018). Genome-wide association study results for educational attainment aid in identifying genetic heterogeneity of schizophrenia. Nature Communications, 9, [3078]. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-05510-z

    • Rietveld, N., Bernoster, I., Thurik, R., & Torrès, O. (2018). Overconfidence, optimism, and entrepreneurship. Sustainability, 10(7), 2233. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10072233

    • Slob, E., Groenen, P., Thurik, R., & Rietveld, N. (2017). A Note on the Use of Egger Regression in Mendelian Randomization Studies. International Journal of Epidemiology, 46(6), 2094-2097. https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyx191

    • Hessels, J., Rietveld, N., & Zwan, P. (2017). Self-employment and work-related stress: The mediating role of job control and job demand. Journal of Business Venturing, 32(2), 178-196. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusvent.2016.10.007

    • Sniekers, S., Stringer, S., Watanabe, K., Jansen, P., Coleman, JRI., Krapohl, E., Taskesen, E., Hammerschlag, AR., Okbay, A., Zabaneh, D., Amin, N., Breen, G., Cesarini, D., Chabris, CF., Iacono, WG., Ikram, A., Johannesson, M., Koellinger, P., Lee, JJ., ... Posthuma, D. (2017). Genome-wide association meta-analysis of 78,308 individuals identifies new loci and genes influencing human intelligence. Nature Genetics, 49(7), 1107-1112. https://doi.org/10.1038/ng.3869

    • Vlaming, R., Okbay, A., Rietveld, N., Johannesson, M., Magnusson, PKE., Uitterlinden, A., van Rooij, FJA., Hofman, B., Groenen, P., Thurik, R., & Koellinger, PD. (2017). Meta-GWAS Accuracy and Power (MetaGAP) calculator shows that hiding heritability is partially due to imperfect genetic correlations across studies. PLoS Genetics (online), 13(1), [e1006495]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1006495

    • Linner, RK., Marioni, RE., Rietveld, N., Simpkin, AJ., Davies, NM., Watanabe, K., Armstrong, NJ., Auro, K., Baumbach, C., Bonder, MJ., Buchwald, J., Fiorito, G., Ismail, K., Iurato, S., Joensuu, A., Karell, P., Kasela, S., Lahti, J., Mcrae, AF., ... Benjamin, DJ. (2017). An epigenome-wide association study meta-analysis of educational attainment. Molecular Psychiatry, 22(12), 1680-1690. https://doi.org/10.1038/mp.2017.210

    • Hoogendoorn, B., Rietveld, N., & Van Stel, A. (2016). Belonging, believing, bonding, and behaving: The relationship between religion and business ownership at the country level. Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 26(3), 1-32. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00191-016-0447-7

    • Okbay, A., Beauchamp, JP., Fontana, MA., Lee, JJ., Pers, TH., Rietveld, N., Turley, P., Chen, GB., Emilsson, V., Meddens, SFW., Oskarsson, S., Pickrell, JK., Thom, K., Timshel, P., Vlaming, R., Abdellaoui, A., Ahluwalia, TS., Bacelis, J., Baumbach, C., ... Benjamin, DJ. (2016). Genome-wide association study identifies 74 loci associated with educational attainment. Nature, 533(7604), 539-542. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature17671

    • Rietveld, N., & Webbink, D. (2016). On the genetic bias of the quarter of birth instrument. Economics and Human Biology, 21, 137-146. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ehb.2016.01.002

    • Li, E., Rietveld, N., & Van Stel, A. (2016). The returns to field of study in college: A comparison between entrepreneurs and wage-workers. International Review of Entrepreneurship, 14(3), 1-18.

    • Rietveld, N., Böckerman, P., Viinikainen, J., Bryson, A., Raitakari, O., & Pehkonen, J. (2016). Creatine and entrepreneurship. Journal of Bioeconomics, 18(1), 53-64. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10818-016-9211-1

    • Rietveld, N., Bailey, H., Hessels, J., & Zwan, P. (2016). Health and entrepreneurship in four Caribbean Basin countries. Economics and Human Biology, 21(May), 84-89. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ehb.2015.12.004

    • Barban, N., Jansen, R., Vlaming, R., Vaez, A., Mandemakers, JJ., Tropf, FC., Shen, X., Wilson, JF., Chasman, DI., Nolte, IM. I., Tragante, V., van der Laan, SW., Perry, JRB., Kong, A., Ahluwalia, TS., Albrecht, E., Yerges-Armstrong, L., Atzmon, G., Auro, K., ... Thurik, R. (2016). Genome-wide analysis identifies 12 loci influencing human reproductive behavior. Nature Genetics, 48(12), 1462-1472. https://doi.org/10.1038/ng.3698

    • Rietveld, N., Hessels, J., & Zwan, P. (2015). The stature of the self-employed and its relation with earnings and satisfaction. Economics and Human Biology, 17(April), 59-74. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ehb.2015.02.001

    • Rietveld, N., & Van Burg, E. (2015). Religious beliefs and entrepreneurship among Dutch protestants. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business.

    • Power, RA., Steinberg, S., Bjornsdottir, G., Rietveld, N., Abdellaoui, A., Nivard, MM., Johannesson, M., Galesloot, TE., Hottenga, JJ. J. J., Willemsen, G., Cesarini, D., Benjamin, DJ., Magnusson, PKE., Ullen, F., Tiemeier, H., Hofman, B., van Rooij, FJA., Walters, GB., Sigurdsson, E., ... Stefansson, K. (2015). Polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder predict creativity. Nature Neuroscience, 18(7), 953-955. https://doi.org/10.1038/nn.4040

    • Conley, D., Domingue, BW., Cesarini, D., Rietveld, N., & Boardman, JD. (2015). Is the effect of parental education on offspring biased or moderated by genotype? Sociological Science, 2, 82. https://doi.org/10.15195/v2.a6

    • Okbay, A., & Rietveld, N. (2015). On improving the credibility of candidate gene studies: A review of candidate gene studies published in Emotion. Emotion, 15(4), 531-537. https://doi.org/10.1037/emo0000076

    • Peyrot, WJ., Lee, SH., Milaneschi, Y., Abdellaoui, A., Byrne, EM., Esko, T., de Geus, EJC., Hemani, G., Hottenga, JJ., Kloiber, S., Levinson, DF., Lucae, S., Martin, NG., Medland, SE., Metspalu, A., Milani, L., Noethen, MM., Potash, JB., Rietschel, M., ... Penninx, BWJH. (2015). The association between lower educational attainment and depression owing to shared genetic effects? Results in similar to 25 000 subjects. Molecular Psychiatry, 20(6), 735-743. https://doi.org/10.1038/mp.2015.50

    • Rietveld, N., Kippersluis, H., & Thurik, R. (2014). Self-employment and Health: Barriers or Benefits? Health Economics, 24(10), 1302-1313. https://doi.org/10.1002/hec.3087

    • Ward, ME., McMahon, G., St Pourcain, B., Evans, DM., Rietveld, N., Benjamin, DJ., Koellinger, PD., Cesarini, D., SSGAC, T., Davey Smith, G., & Timpson, NJ. (2014). Genetic variation associated with differential educational attainment in adults has anticipated associations with school performance in children. PLoS One (print), 9(7), e100248. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0100248

    • Rietveld, N., Conley, D., Eriksson, N., Esko, T., Medland, SE., Vinkhuyzen, AAE., Yang, J., Boardman, JD., Chabris, CF., Dawes, CT., Domingue, BW., Hinds, DA., Johannesson, M., Kiefer, AK., Laibson, D., Magnusson, PKE., Mountain, JL., Oskarsson, S., Rostapshova, O., ... Koellinger, PD. (2014). Replicability and robustness of GWAS for behavioral traits. Psychological Science, 25(11), 1975-1986. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797614545132

    • Hessels, J., Rietveld, N., & Zwan, P. (2014). Unraveling two myths about entrepreneurs. Economics Letters, 122(3), 435-438. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econlet.2014.01.005

    • Gaast, J., Rietveld, N., Gabor, AF., & Zhang, Y. (2014). A Tabu Search Algorithm for Application Placement in Computer Clustering. Computers and Operations Research, 50, 38-46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cor.2014.03.025

    • Rietveld, N., Cesarini, D., Benjamin, DJ., Koellinger, PD., De Neve, JE., Tiemeier, H., Johannesson, M., Magnusson, PKE., Pedersen, NL., Krueger, RF., & Bartels, MC. (2013). Molecular genetics and subjective well-being. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of Ame, 110(24), 9692-9697. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1222171110

    • Rietveld, N., Medland, SE., Derringer, J., Yang, J., Esko, T., Martin, NW., Westra, HJ., Shakhbazov, K., Abdellaoui, A., Agrawal, A., Albrecht, E., Alizadeh, BZ., Amin, N., Barnard, J., Baumeister, SE., Benke, KS., Bielak, LF., Boatman, JA., Boyle, PA., ... Koellinger, PD. (2013). GWAS of 126,559 individuals identifies genetic variants associated with educational attainment. Science, 240(6139), 1467-1471. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1235488

    • van der Loos, MJHM. M., Haring, R., Rietveld, N., Baumeister, SE., Groenen, P., Hofman, B., Jong, F., Koellinger, PD., Kohlmann, T., Nauck, MA., Rivadeneira, F., Uitterlinden, A., van Rooij, FJA., Wallaschofski, H., & Thurik, R. (2013). Serum testosterone levels in males are not associated with entrepreneurial behavior in two independent observational studies. Physiology & Behavior, 119, 110-114. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2013.06.003

    • van der Loos, MJHM. M., Rietveld, N., Eklund, N., Koellinger, PD., Rivadeneira, F., Abecasis, GR., Ankra-Badu, GA., Baumeister, SE., Benjamin, DJ., Biffar, R., Blankenberg, S., Boomsma, DI., Cesarini, D., Cucca, F., de Geus, EJC., Dedoussis, G., Deloukas, P., Dimitriou, M., Eiriksdottir, G., ... Thurik, R. (2013). The Molecular Genetic Architecture of Self-Employment. PLoS One (print), 8(4), e60542. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060542

    • van der Loos, MJHM. M., Koellinger, PD., Groenen, P., Rietveld, N., Rivadeneira, F., van Rooij, FJA., Uitterlinden, A., Hofman, B., & Thurik, R. (2011). Candidate gene studies and the quest for the entrepreneurial gene. Small Business Economics, 37(3), 269-275. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11187-011-9339-2

  • Professional (1)
    • Rietveld, N. (2016). Geno-economie. Economisch-Statistische Berichten, 101, 180-183.

  • Popular (1)
    • Rietveld, N., & van der Loos, MJHM. M. (2012). The quest for the entrepreneurial gene: The importance of study design. In Medium Econometrische Toepassingen (Vol. 19, pp. 14-21). 1

  • Academic (2)
    • Bansal, V., Mitjans, M., Burik, CAP., Karlsson Linner, R., Okbay, A., Rietveld, N., Begemann, M., Bonn, S., Ripke, S., Nivard, MM., Ehrenreich, H., & Koellinger, PD. (2017). Genetics of educational attainment aid in identifying biological subcategories of schizophrenia. BioRxiv. https://doi.org/10.1101/114405

    • Rietveld, N., Groenen, P., Koellinger, PD., Van der Loos, M., & Thurik, R. (2013). Living forever: entrepreneurial overconfidence at older ages. ERIM Report Series Research in Management.

  • Role: Daily Supervisor
  • PhD Candidate: Eric Slob
  • Time frame: 2016 -
  • Role: Member Doctoral Committee
  • PhD Candidate: Indy Bernoster
  • Time frame: 2014 - 2018
  • Role: Daily Supervisor
  • PhD Candidate: Annelot Wismans
  • Time frame: 2018 -
  • Role: Co-promotor
  • PhD Candidate: Tilbe Atav
  • Time frame: 2021 -
Research Seminar
As: Coordinator, Contact
Research Seminar
As: Coordinator, Contact
Research Seminar
As: Contact, Coordinator
Research Seminar
As: Contact, Coordinator
Research Seminar
As: Contact, Coordinator
Research Seminar
As: Contact, Coordinator
Research Seminar
As: Contact, Coordinator
PhD Seminar ERIM Doctoral Programme
As: Speaker


Visiting address

Office: N3-02
Burgemeester Oudlaan 50
3062 PA Rotterdam

Postal address

Postbus 1738
3000 DR Rotterdam